Reading Technique: PARAPHRASING

What is paraphrasing?
Paraphrasing is a method of presenting information from texts or passages in a different way without changing the substance of the original information.
A good paraphrase is accurate –– that is, true to the author’s meaning –– and complete. Paraphrasing involves knowledge of English grammar, vocabulary and comprehension of a text. Paraphrasing is useful in studying information through texts or passages.
Some common ideas to make paraphrasing easier are as follows:

1. Substituting vocabularies with words having similar meaning
Since the essence of paraphrasing is retelling information differently, using other words for some of those in the original source is possible. Using the other words having the same meaning will also help retell the information without changing the ideas of the original information. See the following examples:
a. – The manager doesn’t agree to raise the price.
– The manager disagrees to increase the price.
b. – The manager thinks that the price of the product is not expensive.
– The manager thinks that the price of the product is inexpensive.
c. – The company sued the bank for a fictitious check.
– The company sued the bank for a false check.
d. – Price is increasing day by day.
– Price is getting higher day bay day.
e. – The employee’s promotion is not possible to be awarded this month.
– The employee’s promotion is impossible to be given this month.

2. Changing Active voice into Passive voice vice versa
Retelling information differently is also possible by changing the voice of the sentence of the original information. Active voice can be changed into passive voice and vice versa. See the following examples:

a. – The manager raises the price of the product.
– The price of the product is raised by the manager.
b. – The job can be done in a few days by the staff.
– The staff can do the job in a few days.
c. – The company cannot be saved by the owner because of monetary
crisis.
– The owner cannot save the company because of monetary crisis.
d. – The report must be submitted tomorrow by the employees.
– The employees must submit the report tomorrow.
e. – The manager is waiting the report until tomorrow morning
– The report is being waited by the manager until tomorrow morning.

3. Simplifying
Simplifying the information (sentences) from texts is widely used by most of readers. It is used when changing the voice of the sentences will likely change the complete or some of the ideas. Substituting the vocabularies, however, is possible and in some cases helps much. The way simplification is conducted is actually what the reader of a text understands about what he reads. Then, in some simpler sentences, he retells the idea of the text.
See the following examples of paraphrasing by simplifying information.

a. –There are many differences between a professional manager and an owner-manager. A professional manager works for others. He must attempt to achieve goals that others establish. He is responsible to others for his actions. His performance is judged by those who employ him.
Now look at the simpler version of the text.
– A professional manager and an owner-manager are different. A professional manager is employed by others. The employers make goals. He has to reach the goals responsibly because the employers evaluate his work.

b. – The financing function includes the day-to-day concern for the use and control of funds as well as the long-range planning which is involved with determining future requirements for funds and optimum uses to which they may be put.

Now check this simpler version of the text.
– The financing function deals with the everyday use and control of funds. Future requirements are determined in a long-range planning to allocate the funds optimally.

c. – A business strategy, sometimes termed a competitive strategy or simply strategy, is here defined by six elements or dimensions. The first four apply to any business, even if it exists by itself. The remaining two are introduced when the business exists in organization with other business units.

Now see the simpler version of the text.
– A business strategy is the same as a competitive strategy or strategy. There are six elements in business strategy. The first four are in any business and the other two are in a business in relation with other business units.

COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES WITH YOUR OWN WORDS BASED ON THE INFORMATION IN THE PARAGRAPHS.

Paragraph 1
“Most people work to earn a living, and produce goods and service. Goods are either agricultural (like maize and milk) or manufactured (like cars and paper). Services are such things as education, medicine and commerce. Some people provide goods; some provide services. Other people provide both goods and services. For example, in the same garage, a man may buy a car or some service which helps him to maintain his car.”

1. People produce goods and services to . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
2. There are ……….. goods
3. Education is ……………
4. Car is an example of ………………………

Paragraph 2
The Science of Economics
Economics is a science. This science is based upon the facts of our everyday lives. Economists study our everyday lives. They study the system which affects our lives. The economist tries to describe the facts of the economy in which we live. He tries to explain how the system works. His methods should be objective and scientific.

1. Facts on everyday lives become the bases of ………….
2. The system which affects our lives is the object of ………………..
3. Economists try to make description of …………………
4. Economists’ methods are ……………………………..

Paragraph 3
E-commerce or electronic commerce is the act of selling and buying goods on the Internet. Since companies like Dell, Cisco and Amazon began to use the Internet aggressively for commercial purposes in 1995, the impact of E-commerce has become obvious. Firstly, businessmen can search for business-related information. Secondly, they can make their business available to others. Thirdly, they can use E-mail for their inter companies and intra companies communication. Fourthly, they can post brief public announcement about their companies or products. With these kind of activities taking place, it is no doubt that E-commerce is rapidly becoming a secure, reliable and powerful tool to help business reduce costs.

1. Internet can be media for …………
2. The use of internet by Dell, Cisco, and Amazon has made ……………………
3. Businessmen who need business information ……………
4. Inter companies and intra companies communication …………………………..
5. Now, E-commerce …………..

Paragraph 4
Budgeting is often viewed as an accounting function. This is perhaps due to the fact a budget contains statements of income and expenses, assets and liabilities and the like. The accounting function is very close to the budget since, among other things, it provides the historical data needed for budget preparation, and it prepares periodic reports showing relationship budgeted figures and actual performance.
1. Budgeting is frequently viewed as an accounting function because …………….
2. Income and expenses, assets, and liabilities ……………………………..
3. Accounting function is related to budget because …………
4. Accounting function contains…….

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