Krashen’s Hypothesis: The Input Hypothesis

The input hypothesis answers the question of how a language acquirer develops comptency over time. It states that a language acquirer who is at “level i” must receive comprehensible input that is at “level i+1.”

Krashen’s Hypothesis: The Monitor Hypothesis

The language that one has subconsciously acquired “initiates our utterances in a second language and is responsible for our fluency,”

Krashen’s Hypothesis: Acquisition-Learning Distinction

Adults have two different ways to develop competence in a language: language acquisition and language learning.

Krashen’s Theory: The role of Comprehensible input

This is what Krashen says in his book Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. English Language Teaching series. London: Prentice-Hall International (UK) Ltd.


The term interlanguage was first used by Selingker (1972). Various alternative terms have been used by different researchers to refer to the same phenomenon; Nemser (1971) refers to approximative systems, and Corder (1971) to idiosyncratic dialects and transitional competence.

SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING: Competence vs. Performance

A distinction is often made between competence and performance in the study of language.