L2 Methods and Approaches: Total Physical Response

Asher, J.C. (1979). Learning Another Language Through Actions. San Jose, California: AccuPrint. James J. Asher defines the Total Physical Response (TPR) method as one that combines information and skills through the use of the kinesthetic sensory system. This combination of skills allows the student to assimilate information and skills at a rapid rate. As a […]

L2 Methods and Approaches: Functional-Notional Approach

Finocchiaro, M. & Brumfit, C. (1983). The Functional-Notional Approach. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. This method of language teaching is categorized along with others under the rubric of a communicative approach. The method stresses a means of organizing a language syllabus. The emphasis is on breaking down the global concept of language into units […]

L2 Methods and Approaches: Communicative Appraoch

What is communicative competence? • Communicative competence is the progressive acquisition of the ability to use a language to achieve one’s communicative purpose. • Communicative competence involves the negotiation of meaning between meaning between two or more persons sharing the same symbolic system.

L2 Methods and Approacahes: The Silent Way

Gattegno, C. (1972).Teaching Foreign Languages in Schools: The Silent Way. New York City: Educational Solutions. Procedures This method created by Caleb Gattegno begins by using a set of colored rods and verbal commands in order to achieve the following: To avoid the use of the vernacular. To create simple linguistic situations that remain under the […]

L2 Methods and Approaches: Community Language Learning

Curran, C.A. (1976). Counseling-Learning in Second Languages. Apple River, Illinois: Apple River Press, 1976. This methodology created by Charles Curran is not based on the usual methods by which languages are taught. Rather the approach is patterned upon counseling techniques and adapted to the peculiar anxiety and threat as well as the personal and language […]

L2 Methods and Approaches: Audiolingual Method

This method is based on the principles of behavior psychology. It adapted many of the principles and procedures of the Direct Method, in part as a reaction to the lack of speaking skills of the Reading Approach. New material is presented in the form of a dialogue. Based on the principle that language learning is […]